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Story of Grand Canyon of Arizona

Description

Booklet describing a geological survey of the Grand Canyon. Four editions: 1917, 1929, 1936, 1950.

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Created

Date Created
1917

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Graphics for Core-Complex Morphology and Geologic Continuous Casting

Description

The essential process in continuous casting is cooling and solidification of the cast medium during heat loss across a slip surface followed by extrusion from a mold. There are implications here for the manner in which core complexes form.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2009

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Carbon Sequestration Potential at the 1 Alpine-Federal Site in East-Central Arizona

Description

This open-file report describes the carbon-sequestration potential at the site of the 1 Alpine-Federal geothermal test drill hole, which is located south of Springerville in central eastern Arizona near the New Mexico border. A previous report, Arizona Geological Survey (AZGS)

This open-file report describes the carbon-sequestration potential at the site of the 1 Alpine-Federal geothermal test drill hole, which is located south of Springerville in central eastern Arizona near the New Mexico border. A previous report, Arizona Geological Survey (AZGS) Open-File Report OFR 94-1, version 2.0, describes the subsurface geology encountered in the 1 Alpine-Federal well in much more detail than this new report.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2009

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Geologic Characterization of the Black Hills Dam (Scottsdale, Arizona)

Description

The purpose of this research project is to determine the origin of the materials used to construct the Black Hills Dam in order to restore the landscape to pre-dam conditions. The Black Hills Dam site is located in northern Scottsdale,

The purpose of this research project is to determine the origin of the materials used to construct the Black Hills Dam in order to restore the landscape to pre-dam conditions. The Black Hills Dam site is located in northern Scottsdale, Maricopa County, at 33.75° North, 111.80° West. The goals of this project are to characterize the surficial deposits and local geology of the dam site. This report presents our findings, interpretations and conclusions based on background research, a site visit to the dam site, and technical discussions with the City of Scottsdale engineer and planners.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2009

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Delineating Post-Wildlife Debris Flow Hazards for Pre-Fire Mitigation, Pine and Strawberry, Arizona

Description

The goal of this study is to develop a method for identifying potential post-fire debris flow hazard areas prior to the occurrence of wildfires, providing more time for local governments and emergency planners to develop and execute hazard mitigation strategies.

The goal of this study is to develop a method for identifying potential post-fire debris flow hazard areas prior to the occurrence of wildfires, providing more time for local governments and emergency planners to develop and execute hazard mitigation strategies. This pilot study focuses on the communities of Pine and Strawberry, which are located in forested canyons at the base of the Mogollon Rim in north-central Arizona. Results from this project will provide local agencies, emergency planners and land managers more effective tools for prioritizing watershed treatment areas and implementing mitigation measures to alleviate potential impacts and threats from post-fire debris flows to infrastructure, human life, and property in a timely and cost-effective manner.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2008-06-30

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Geologic Mapping of Debris Flow Deposits in the Santa Catalina Mountains (Pima County, Arizona)

Description

In order to begin to assess debris‐flow hazards along the Santa Catalina Mountains in Pima County, we mapped the extent and character of relatively young prehistoric debris‐flow deposits in detail at fifteen
canyon mouths. Mapping was conducted on a scale

In order to begin to assess debris‐flow hazards along the Santa Catalina Mountains in Pima County, we mapped the extent and character of relatively young prehistoric debris‐flow deposits in detail at fifteen
canyon mouths. Mapping was conducted on a scale of 1:6,000 using aerial photographs, detailed
topography, and field relationships. Deposits were classified into relative age categories based on
topographic relationships, soil development and surface characteristics of the deposits. Ages of selected
debris‐flow deposits in four canyons – Soldier, Sabino, Finger Rock and Pima – were estimated using
radiocarbon (14C) and cosmogenic (10Be) isotope methods.

Evidence of past debris flows were found in all fifteen canyons. Relative age dating, corroborated by
10Be, indicates the largest and most extensive deposits in all canyons are late Pleistocene to early
Holocene in age. Events from 2006 show that some potential exists for debris flows to exit the mountain front into developed areas near canyon mouths.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2008-09

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Geology and Geological Hazards Field Trip of Sabino Canyon: Results of the July 2006 Storms

Description

This field trip guide was created for a Project WET conference held in Tucson, Arizona, June, 2007. This guide discusses the general geology of the Santa Catalina Mountains in Sabino Canyon, and points out evidence of the July 2006 floods

This field trip guide was created for a Project WET conference held in Tucson, Arizona, June, 2007. This guide discusses the general geology of the Santa Catalina Mountains in Sabino Canyon, and points out evidence of the July 2006 floods and debris flows. There are stops in the first few miles of canyon, and towards the end of the tram road, where the most spectacular debris flows are located.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2008-06

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Surficial Geology and Fire in Southeastern Arizona Grasslands: Effects on Soil Geochemistry in Semiarid Ecosystems, Fort Huachuca Military Reservation, Arizona

Description

Throughout the southwestern United States, vegetation in what historically was grassland has changed to a mixture of trees and shrubs; exotic grass species and undesirable shrubs have also invaded the grasslands at the expense of native grasses. The availability and

Throughout the southwestern United States, vegetation in what historically was grassland has changed to a mixture of trees and shrubs; exotic grass species and undesirable shrubs have also invaded the grasslands at the expense of native grasses. The availability and amount of soil nutrients influence the relative success of plants, but few studies have examined fire effects on soil characteristics in a temporal, spatial, and species group-specific fashion. Likewise, few studies have tied fire effects and ecological aspects to the underlying geology. Our research investigates the effects of fire events on selected soil characteristics pH, nitrate (NO3-), plant-available phosphorus (PO4-3), and total organic carbon (TOC) on native grass-, exotic grass-, and mixed grass-dominated plots distributed on four different geological surfaces. Treated and control plots were sampled prior to burn treatment and at intervals after the burns. In addition to new geologic mapping of the study areas, results indicate the geologic substrate is the most important variable for explaining pH, NO3- and PO4-3 values in the soils. Dominant grass type – native, non-native, or mixed – had little effect on the response of soil geochemistry to fire events: post-burn results indicate vegetation was a significant factor only for TOC. Recovery to pre-burn levels varies with characteristic: there were no significant initial differences between vegetation types, but significant differences in NO3-, PO4-3, and TOC amounts occur as a result of fire events, geological characteristics, and time. The research helps identify the soil response to fire and the recovery times of soil characteristics, further defines which fire frequency is optimal as a management strategy to maximize soil macronutrient contents, and illustrates the important role geology plays in grassland ecosystems.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2006-06

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Sedona Sinkholes and Groundwater Flow: The Geologic History of Their Evolution, Coconino and Yavapai Counties, Arizona

Description

Seven sinkholes surround the city of Sedona in Coconino and Yavapai Counties, Arizona. They occur in surface bedrock of Permian age Esplanade Sandstone, Hermit formation, and Schnebly Hill Sandstone, but the causative source is from the collapse of subsurface water-filled

Seven sinkholes surround the city of Sedona in Coconino and Yavapai Counties, Arizona. They occur in surface bedrock of Permian age Esplanade Sandstone, Hermit formation, and Schnebly Hill Sandstone, but the causative source is from the collapse of subsurface water-filled caves in Mississippian Redwall Limestone that underlies those formations. The original Mississippian-age Redwall karst surface has undergone two additional phases of dissolution enlargement in later geologic time. The first occurred after the Laramide uplift of the Mogollon Highlands when northeast flowing streams penetrated the exposed Redwall Limestone erosion surface, and the second took place following the generation of the Verde graben ~10 million years ago when regional drainage reversal took place. Pre-graben Miocene basalt lava flows that overlie eroded Paleozoic strata are present on either side of, and faulted within, the Verde graben closed depression. Post-graben erosion generated the Mogollon Rim escarpment in the northern portion of the Verde Valley and allowed surface streams to erode the broad Dry Creek and Margs Draw valleys. Oak Creek fault, and the erosion of its canyon, is much younger than the faulting that generated the Verde graben.

Over time, water flow through the Sedona area evolved from surface flow to dominantly groundwater flow, mainly due to leakage through abundant northwest-southeast oriented rock joints and permeable fault zones into underlying cavernous Redwall Limestone. USGS oxygen isotope studies show that water recharge entering the northeastern part of the Upper Verde watershed, and passing beneath the greater Sedona area, originated high on the Colorado Plateau above 6900 feet before discharging at a rate of ~15 millions of gallons per day at artesian springs in the Page Springs area to the southwest of Sedona. Dissolution caves in the underlying Redwall Limestone have now enlarged to the point where their sandstone roof rocks have collapsed into limestone caves over the past several thousand years. Devils Kitchen sinkhole has historic records of collapse in the 1880s, 1989 and 1995, and it will continue to collapse in future years.

Six additional sinkholes are in various stages of collapse from modern time and possibly to the end of the last Ice Age. While the danger of future collapse is probably minimal to humans, unregulated septic leakage into hidden sinkhole breccias within the town limits could contaminate groundwater being tapped for municipal use or the contamination of the Page Springs outflow. The report contains geologic maps, cross sections, photographs and individual features of the sinkholes as of the end of 2009.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2010-04

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Geologic Report of the Devils Kitchen Sinkhole (Sedona, Yavapai County, Arizona)

Description

At the request of the U.S. Forest Service to Red Rock Jeep Tours of Sedona a geologic report on the condition of the Devils Kitchen sinkhole was required for the safe continuation of Jeep visits to the site (Fig. 1).

At the request of the U.S. Forest Service to Red Rock Jeep Tours of Sedona a geologic report on the condition of the Devils Kitchen sinkhole was required for the safe continuation of Jeep visits to the site (Fig. 1). Mark Avery of the jeep company contacted me to study the site and write up my findings. The study of sinkholes in the Sedona area has been of interest to the writer for some time and the present study is hoped to shed some light on these fascinating geologic features. This report is offered as a public contribution at the cost of publication and without fee.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2010-02